Zgodnie z art. 13 Rozporządzenia Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) z dnia 27 kwietnia 2016 r. w sprawie ochrony osób fizycznych w związku z przetwarzaniem danych i w sprawie swobodnego przepływu takich danych oraz uchylenia dyrektywy 95/46/WE (Dz. Urz. UE L 119 z dnia 04.05.2016 r.) Muzeum Azji i Pacyfiku w Warszawie informuje, że:
Myanmar (Burma), 2nd half of the 20th c.
wood, string, plant fiber, wool, sequins
carving, polychrome, linen weave, sewing, embroidery
dimensions: 25 x 84 x 16 cm
Inv. number MAP 19769
Puppetry is an old tradition in many Asian countries (ex. China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and Turkey). It is uncertain when exactly the tradition appeared in Burma. The most common theory is that it was modeled after Thai theatre from the 18th century, however some sources point to its existing three centuries beforehand.
Theatre in Myanmar (Burma) is a theatre in which the puppets are animated by being suspended with the use of strings, so they are marionettes. Its name is a combination of the words marionette (yokhte) and show (pwe). This type of theatre functions independently from human theatre, whose predecessor it likely was. Its golden age occurred during the 18th century, and continued into most of the 19th century. After the annexation of Myanmar by the British in 1885, its popularity dwindled. The art form continues to this day, however, it is quite rare.
Yokhte pwe theatre was primarily used to portray traditional Buddhist stories, as well as Burmese history, Indian tales about the heroic king Rama (the Ramayana), and legends of prince Panji which were popular in South-East Asia.
The plays are performed under the night sky, on a stage constructed of bamboo and painted textiles. The puppeteers control the puppets from behind the stage while leaning over it, appearing only partially visible.
The plays consist of two acts. The first presents the genesis of the world, firstly being destroyed by fire, and then by flood. The second act presents the play. It is during the first act that mythological characters would appear (ex. Zawgyi the alchemist, a deity from Burmese folklore, independent of Buddhism) as well as various animals, such as the tiger. The second act is dominated by human characters (ex. kings and ministers).
The tiger figure is carved out of wood, its head and limbs are all movable. Its torso is separated into two parts – the front and back being tied together with string and textiles, decorated with embroidery sequins.
The head, torso, and legs of the animal are tied with string to a wooden handle, which is used to animate the puppet. All Burmese puppets are distinguished for their suppleness – they are put together from multiple wooden parts, being tied together in order to allow the whole puppet to become animated quite elaborately – which takes a lot of skill.
(English translation: Rafał Kaszyński)